Finding communication strategies that effectively motivate social distancing continues to be a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-country, preregistered experiment (n = 25,718 from 89 countries) tested hypotheses concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of social distancing messages that promoted personal agency and reflective choices (i.e., an autonomy-supportive message) or were restrictive and shaming (i.e. a controlling message) compared to no message at all. Results partially supported experimental hypotheses in that the controlling message increased controlled motivation (a poorly-internalized form of motivation relying on shame, guilt, and fear of social consequences) relative to no message. On the other hand, the autonomy-supportive message reduced feelings of defiance relative to the controlling message. Unexpectedly, messages did not influence autonomous motivation (a highly-internalized form of motivation relying on one’s core values) or behavioral intentions. Results supported hypothesized associations between people’s existing autonomous and controlled motivations and self-reported behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing: Controlled motivation was associated with more defiance and less long-term behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing, whereas autonomous motivation was associated with less defiance and more short- and long-term intentions to social distance. Overall, this work highlights the potential harm of using shaming and pressuring language in public health communication, with implications for the current and future global health challenges.
Guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study investigates littering attitudes, social norms, and perceived behavioural control as predictors of the intention to prevent littering and actual littering prevention behaviour among residents of a developing country (Nigeria). The study employed a survey questionnaire to collect cross-sectional data. By applying structural equation modelling it was found that people who intend to prevent littering are also more likely to engage in actual littering prevention behaviour. At the same time, the perceived behavioural control had a significant influence on littering prevention intention. The study's findings can assist waste managers in formulating policies and interventions targeting behavioural intention and perceived behavioural control to foster littering prevention. Further, environmental managers should engage applied social and environmental psychologists or social scientists to design such behaviour change programmes.
The study of authoritarianism has a long history in the field of psychology; however, much of this research focuses on Western countries, especially the United States. In effort to better understand authoritarianism cross-culturally, we explore the current state of authoritarianism in an important cultural context: Russia. Thus, the current paper explores large-scale research of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation in the modern Russian context. Six studies (total N = 1358) included personality traits, basic human values, social beliefs, and intergroup attitudes that allowed us to comprehensively consider authoritarian attitudes in Russia. The results showed that personological profile and pattern of reaction to threat among Russian authoritarians is similar to Western authoritarians. However, economic views inherited from Soviet ideology make Russians differ in their view on economic conservatism supported by Western authoritarians. These data provide insight into the psychology of authoritarianism as well as explore novel aspects of Russian culture.
The invited IAIR Award Paper by Kunst (2021) published in IJIR asserts that there is a “causality crisis” in acculturation research and critically discusses the current meta-analytical evidence supporting the integration hypothesis. In this commentary, we question this claim in light of our understanding of the acculturation process and its constituent phenomena. Our proposal is to consider acculturation patterns as behavioral syndromes, in which many phenomena are inter-related and which change over the course of acculturation. We also question the claim in Kunst’s paper about meta-analytical evidence, and end with some proposals for future research on acculturation.
Cross-national research claims that the crime-and-corruption gap between relatively poor and relatively rich countries is larger in more demanding climates that require more capital to cope with the climate. However, this claim is premature because countries differ in a many confounding ways including histories and politics. We, therefore, re-tested the climato-economic context of violent crime and corruption within Russia, a country with considerable regional differences in climate and income. Across the eighty-five administrative units of Russia, the crime-and-corruption gap between relatively poor and relatively rich regions is smaller in more demanding climates. Harsher climates are so strongly associated with higher crime levels that the potential influence of differences in wealth becomes negligible. Furthermore, harsher climates are so strongly associated with higher corruption rates in poorer regions but lower corruption rates in richer regions that the potential influence of the climatic demands as such becomes negligible.
The study extends the approach of the Stereotype Content Model to ethnic stereotype content beyond intergroup relations within societies by exploring the North-South hypothesis for competence and warmth. This paper claims that the “desperate” (resource-poor and unpredictable) of lower-latitude climate regions and “hopeful” (resource-sufficient and stable) ecology higher-latitude climate regions translate into typical aggregate attributes and are afterward generalized to the status of all their residents. Further, people use this information as a diagnostic for judgments about the economic value or burden of ethnic groups in their society. Based on the data about aggregated means of competence and warmth for 77 ethnic groups in 38 regions, the multivariate models show that ethnic groups from warmer climates and from lower wealth countries are given lower evaluation in both competence and warmth stereotypes. However, ethnic groups from more northerly countries are also given a lower evaluation in warmth. Ethnic stereotypes reflect both features of ethnic groups in countries of origin (e.g., the North-South polarization) and group characteristics carried by ethnic groups in new contexts (i.e., intergroup relations). Thus, reactions to ethnic groups seem to differ partly depending on countries of origin mixed in people’s minds with information about geography, climate, and national wealth in the social perception process. Stereotypes associated with ethnic groups across countries to some extent track the stereotypes associated with the ecologies in which these ethnic groups are assumed to predominantly live. This highlights the importance of the establishment or expansion of policies and programs regarding international inequality.
Research on intergroup bias usually focuses on a single dimension of social categorization. In real life, however, people are aware of others' multiple group memberships and use this information to form attitudes about them. The present research tests the predictive power of identification, perceived conflict, and perceived symbolic threat in explaining the strength of intergroup bias on various dimensions of social categorization in multiple categorization settings. We conduct a factorial survey experiment, manipulating 9 dimensions of social categorization in diverse samples from 4 countries (n = 12,810 observations, 1,281 participants representing 103 social groups). The dimensions studied are age, gender, ethnicity, religion, place of residence, education, occupation, income, and 1 country-specific dimension. This approach allows exploring the generalizability of established determinants of bias across dimensions of categorization, contexts, and target groups. Identification and symbolic threat showed good generalizability across countries and categorization dimensions, but their effects varied as a function of participant and target groups' status. Identification predicted stronger bias mainly when the participant belonged to a higher status and the target belonged to a lower status group. Symbolic threat predicted stronger bias mainly when the target was a minority group member. Conflict predicted bias only in few cases, and not only the strength but also the direction of the effects varied across countries, dimensions, and target and participant groups. These findings help to clarify the limits of generalizability of established determinants of intergroup bias and highlight the need for new explanations of social- cognitive processes among minority group members.
The collapse of the USSR, the destruction of the common identity of “Soviet people,” and the development of new, inclusive identities stimulated researchers to study changes in social identity in the post-Soviet space. In this chapter, we analyze how the USSR collapse triggered the mechanisms of the formation of new identities and the main trends of identity changes in this context. We provide an overview of studies of different kinds of identities and their impact on attitudes and intercultural relations in post-Soviet countries. We present some recent studies of identity changes in the region and provide possible directions for future research. We conclude that the dramatic sociopolitical changes after the collapse of the USSR have been followed by salient changes in individual and group self-identifications, illustrating the social embeddedness of our selves.
Affect is involved in many psychological phenomena, but a descriptive structure, long sought, has been elusive. Valence and arousal are fundamental, and a key question–the focus of the present study–is the relationship between them. Valence is sometimes thought to be independent of arousal, but, in some studies (representing too few societies in the world) arousal was found to vary with valence. One common finding is that arousal is lowest at neutral valence and increases with both positive and negative valence: a symmetric Vshaped relationship. In the study reported here of self-reported affect during a remembered moment (N = 8,590), we tested the valence-arousal relationship in 33 societies with 25 different languages. The two most common hypotheses in the literature–independence and a symmetric V-shaped relationship–were not supported. With data of all samples pooled, arousal increased with positive but not negative valence. Valence accounted for between 5% (Finland) and 43% (China Beijing) of the variance in arousal. Although there is evidence for a structural relationship between the two, there is also a large amount of variability in this relation.
The integration of institutionalist and communitarian views of social capital accumulation is increasingly advocated for in order to analyze civil society dynamics, in particular in transitional countries such as former socialist states. The present paper is an attempt at conciliating the two views through a micro level-focused approach. Such a perspective allows investigating linkages between institutional perception, civic engagement and trust in the society, with the support of social cognition frameworks (social categorization and shared agency). The approach emphasizes the linkages existing between trust toward institutions and perceptions of civic empowerment on the one hand, and civic engagement and trust in the society on the other, taking into account also the role of interpersonal (informal) networking. The analysis, carried out through structural equation modeling, is based on more than 2000 observations from two federal districts of the Russian Federation. Results show a relevant positive correlation between institutional perception and social capital, and a moderate correlation between bonding personal networking and trust in the society; on the other hand, civic engagement and trust in the society appear to be uncorrelated between each other and correlated with different forms of institutional perception.
Objective. Critical analysis of existing research about the correlation between involvement in the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and social capital; formulation of the author’s point of view on limitations of existing research about the correlation between ICT and social capital.Background. The development of ICT creates a new social reality and appearance of new social practices. Spreading of ICT and, in particular, the Internet, defines global changes in the technological context of communications. Social capital as one of the most important products of social interaction can be determined by the development of ICT, and at the same time social capital can influence the development of ICT. What is the nature of this relationship, how social capital will change in the context of ICT’s development, and how social capital affects the inclusion people in ICT’s using — these are the main questions that this study focuses on.Conclusions. Existing studies prove the correlation between social capital and developing of ICT. In doing so, both social capital influences the nature and intensity of ICT’s using, and ICT influence the creation and maintenance of social capital. This link can be analyzed not only on the individual, but also on the collective level. At the same time, the existing studies on the relationship between ICT and social capital have some limitations. Among the main limitations: imbalance in the levels of analysis (individual and collective levels) in studies on the relationship between ICT and social capital; lack of theoretical explanations of link mechanism between ICT and social capital; lack of studies that summarize the current knowledge about the relationship between ICT and social capital.
High levels of social cohesion have been shown to be beneficial both for social entities and for their residents. It is therefore not surprising that scholars from several disciplines investigate which factors contribute to or hamper social cohesion at various societal levels. In recent years, the question of how individuals deal with the increasing diversity of their neighborhoods and society as a whole has become of particular interest when examining cohesion. The present study takes this a step further by combining sociological and psychological approaches in investigating whether the group-level acceptance of diversity, a core feature of cohesive societies, is related to prevailing mentalities of individuals once the social structure of a community is accounted for. We hypothesize that after controlling for individual sociodemographic and for structural variables, three individual characteristics play an important role for the level of acceptance of diversity in a given entity. We propose that individual intergroup anxiety (IGA) acts as a motor of the rejection of diversity whereas individual empathy should act as a safeguard. Furthermore, we propose that right-leaning political orientation (PO) has a negative influence on the acceptance of diversity. This study is based on a large, representative sample of the German general population (N1 = 2,869). To draw comparisons among different social entities, the sample was divided by federal states (N2 = 16). Data were analyzed by using a two-step approach for analyzing group-level outcomes in multilevel models. The analyses confirmed our hypothesis that intergroup anxiety at the individual level hampers the acceptance of diversity in a given sociopolitical entity. Furthermore, we found that intergroup anxiety is impacted by the economic situation in a federal state (measured per capita gross domestic product), as economic weakness intensified the fear of others. Surprisingly, neither empathy nor political orientation played a role for the acceptance of diversity. Implications for future research on social cohesion as well as for the work of policy makers are discussed.
The Armenian diaspora is one of the largest in Russia and in the world. The Armenians living in the Krasnodar Territory are a large and active group, thus, an investigation into the problem of their acculturation is of scientific and practical importance. Based on the theory of social identity, the theory of acculturation, and the regional socio-cultural context, the study focused on the role of ethnic, regional and Russian national (civic) identities and diaspora activity in the acculturation of the Armenians in the Krasnodar Territory. The study used the scales from the MIRIPS project questionnaire (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies). The sample consisted of 181 respondents. Using structural equation modeling, the ethnic and Russian national identities of the Armenians living in the Krasnodar Territory were revealed as factors that contributed to their integration, and regional identity—as factors that fostered assimilation. Diaspora activity was determined by both ethnic and regional identity and predicted the Armenians’ attitudes towards integration and separation. Also, diaspora activity of the Armenians in the Kuban region facilitated the interconnection of ethnic and regional identities with the separation strategy. In general, the study revealed that all identities (ethnic, regional and Russian national) contribute to a certain degree to the acceptance of the host society culture by the Armenians in the Krasnodar Territory. At the same time, diaspora activity can be an effective mechanism for the adaptation of migrants or a source of problems associated with increased impenetrability of diaspora’s borders, the migrants’ exclusive focus on their ethnic group and their decreased desire for sociocultural integration into the host society. It is important to take this into account when shaping the regional interethnic relations policy
How can we maximize what is learned from a replication study? In the creative destruction approach to replication, the original hypothesis is compared not only to the null hypothesis, but also to predictions derived from multiple alternative theoretical accounts of the phenomenon. To this end, new populations and measures are included in the design in addition to the original ones, to help determine which theory best accounts for the results across multiple key outcomes and contexts. The present pre-registered empirical project compared the Implicit Puritanism account of intuitive work and sex morality to theories positing regional, religious, and social class differences; explicit rather than implicit cultural differences in values; self-expression vs. survival values as a key cultural fault line; the general moralization of work; and false positive effects. Contradicting Implicit Puritanism's core theoretical claim of a distinct American work morality, a number of targeted findings replicated across multiple comparison cultures, whereas several failed to replicate in all samples and were identified as likely false positives. No support emerged for theories predicting regional variability and specific individual-differences moderators (religious affiliation, religiosity, and education level). Overall, the results provide evidence that work is intuitively moralized across cultures.
This chapter presents an approach to psychology that is rooted in the concept of culture.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy which modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries/regions (N = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vs. both control conditions) consistently reduced negative emotions and increased positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world.
В данной статье представлен анализ и общая таксономия межгрупповых идеологий, а также представлен список их индикаторов. Эта таксономия связана с восемью идеологиями, которые первоначально были изложены в ранних работах. Эти идеологии были созданы на основе трех измерений межкультурных отношений: сохранение культуры; социальное участие; и относительная власть. Предлагаемая здесь таксономия межгрупповых идеологий следует этим трем измерениям, которые связаны с двумя проблемами: (i) отношение к культурному многообразию; и (ii) формы инклюзии этнокультурных групп в более широкое общество (включая вопрос о групповой иерархии). Можно оценить, как эти проблемы решаются, используя четыре индикатора: (1) приветствие различий, (2) статус групп, (3) возможности для социальной интеракции и (4) способ обеспечения единства общества. Ориентация на эти индикаторы позволяет понять, какие межгрупповые идеологии, охватывающие межкультурные установки и межгрупповые отношения, существуют в странах, и описать их.